Automatic Room light Controller with Visitor Counter

Automatic Room light Controller with Visitor Counter

Project Cost : 5,200

Available in: 5 Days

Project Code: 1101

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You will get a CD with this project:

CD contains following things:

  1. Project Report in pdf format and in doc (word) format
  2. Circuit diagram
  3. PCB layout
  4. Microcontroller program in assembly language
  5. Hex file of the microcontroller code
  6. Datasheets of all the components / ICs used in the project
Synopsis of the project:

Download Project Synopsis

Click here to Download project synopsis in pdf format



Wastage of electricity is one of the main problems which we are facing now a days. In our home, school, colleges or industry we see that fan / lights are kept on even if there are nobody in the room or area / passage. This happens due to negligence or because we forgot to turn lights off or when we are in hurry. To avoid all such situations we have designed this project called “Automatic room light controller with visitor counter”. This project has two modules, first one is known as “Digital Visitor counter” and second module is known as “Automatic room light controller”. Main concept behind this project is known as “Visitor counter” which measures  the number of persons entering in any room like seminar hall, conference room, classroom. This function is implemented using a pair of Infrared sensors. LCD display placed outside the room displays this value of person count. This person count will be incremented if somebody enters inside the room and at that time lights are turned on. And in reverse way, person count will be decremented if somebody leaves the room. When number of persons inside the room is zero, lights inside the room are turned off using a relay interface. In this way Relay does the operation of “Automatic room light controller”. Since this project uses 2 infrared sensors, it can be used as Bidirectional person counter as well.

Block Diagram:

Automatic Room light Controller with Visitor Counter

Description in detail:

Following are the important modules in this project:

1. IR Transmitter: We have implemented the Person counter module using 2 transmitters and 2 receivers. We have used Infra-Red transmitters. Reason behind choosing IR LED is, infrared beams are not visible to human eyes and they are not easily triggered by other sources in the environment. Transmitters used are IR LEDs.

2. IR Receiver: We have used IR sensor as an Infrared receiver. It is an active low device, which means it gives low output when it receives the Infrared rays. So when the IR rays are interrupted by any person then microcontroller will receive a high pulse from the IR receiver.

3. Microcontroller: This is the CPU (central processing unit) of our project. We have used 89s51 which is a microcontroller of 8051 family. The various functions of microcontroller are like:

I. Bidirectional Visitor counter section – It is bidirectional because we have used 2 sensors on a single door. Microcontroller does the function of Reading the digital input from two infrared receivers and calculates the number of persons from them.

II. Display – Microcontroller sends the person count to LCD, so that the person operating this project should read the number of persons inside the room.

III. Automatic Room Light controller section – Microcontroller turns on the Room Light when person count is greater than or equal to one. And turn off lights when count is zero. This is done by Relay. Since relay is used, you can connect an AC bulb or DC bulb as per your requirement. We will provide a bulb holder to connect AC bulb.

4. LCD Display: We have used 16×2 alphanumeric Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) which means it can display alphabets along with numbers on 2 lines each containing 16 characters. This display should be placed outside the room. It displays various messages like “Person Counter Incremented”, “Person Counter Decremented”, “No of Person in Room = XYZ” here XYZ is the actual person count.

5. Relay: We have used 12 volt relay. Since microcontroller can not turn on relay directly, we have used a Relay driver circuit. This circuit consists of a transistor which is used to turn on relay through microcontroller. We have used a SPDT relay. SPDT means Single Pole Double Throw relay. In this project we have provided 2 pin connector as a output of Relay. One of these 2 pins is connected to the Normally open terminal of the Relay which is also known as NO contact.

6.Darlington pair: It is used to increase the current gain. Output of 555 IC is given to the Darlington circuit. And output of Darlington pair is given to IR led, thus it increases current through Infrared LEDs which helps in increasing the range of infra-red rays emitted from IR leds.

How to give demo of this project:

  • There are 2 transmitters and 2 receivers placed infront of each other. Swap any object (like mobile)  or your fingers (not single finger) in front of those sensors.
  • Then microcontroller will increment or decrement the counter.
  • Once the count is non-zero, the room light is turned on using relay.
  • Now swap object in reverse direction to decrement the count. And room light is turned off once the count becomes zero.

Enhancement added to this project:

We have added Light Dependant Resistor (LDR) in this project.

Purpose of LDR: Light sensor – LDR will detect the sunlight in the room (or we can say LDR is used to detect daytime)

If there is enough sunlight in the room (which means it is a daytime) then the relay will not be turned on even if the person count is greater than zero. In this mode it will work only as a Person counter to save the electricity and works as energy saver. And if there insufficient sunlight in the room then only the relay will be turned on so as to turn on the bulb.


1. Digital Visitor Counter can be used in various rooms like seminar hall, conference  hall where the capacity of room is limited and should not be exceeded. Project will display actual number of persons inside the room.

2. “Automatic Room light Controller with Visitor Counter” can be used in class rooms, study rooms in colleges.

3. This project can also be used in our home because many times we come out of our bedroom or any other room and we forgot to turn off the room light.

4. This project can be used in Cinema halls, multiplex, malls as well as in temples to count the number of person entering inside. So that these places should not get over crowded to avoid congestion.


1. Main advantage of this project is that  it helps in energy conservation. Because when there is nobody inside the room then lights are automatically turned off.

2. Human efforts to count the number of person is eliminated. Since this project does the automatic person counting with the help of two sensors installed on door frame.

Future Development:

1. Voice alarm system can be added to indicate that room is full & persons can’t enter inside.

2. We can increase the maximum number of persons that can be counted by implementing the external EEPROM ic.

3. We can send this data to a remote location using mobile or internet.

Video of the project: Automatic Room light Controller with Visitor Counter

How to place these sensors on door:

Below is the diagramatic representation on how the two sensors should be placed on the door frame

Bidirectional visitor counter

Snehal Shinde

Question and answers about this project:

Question: Why you have used Infrared sensors to count the no of persons? What are the advantages?

Answer: Advantage of using Infrared sensor is that IR rays are not visible to human eyes. Also IR rays are not affected by any other sources. For example: If you use LDR as a sensor then it can be easily triggered by sunlight or any other sources of light.

Question: Which type of fan / lights can be controlled using this project? AC or DC ?

Answer: We have used Relay to turn on/off the fan or light. So we can use any type of fan / light. We can either use AC fan or DC fan as well. Relay provides isolation from the microcontroller circuit. Thus user can use fan operating on 12 volt (CPU fan) or a 230 volts AC fan.

Question: Suppose two people walk into the room in matching steps interval will it sense one intrusion? i.e. if two person enter the room without any gap between them then will microcontroller will detect 2 person or only 1 person?

Answer: If there is no gap between two persons, then microcontroller will sense that only 1 person has entered into room. There should be some time delay (at-least half seconds delay between 2 persons)

Question: Are you using any separate counter IC for counting the persons or microcontroller itself is configured as the counter?

Answer: We have not used any separate IC for the counting. Microcontroller does all the functions. It is central processing unit for the project. It takes input pulses from sensor, counts the person, activate/deactivates the relay.

Question: How the counting of people using transmitters & receivers works ?

Answer: We have used to 2 pairs of Transmitter and receiver. These should be placed on the door frame, in-front of each other. If a person enters the room then first receiver will cut and then second receiver will cut. Then microcontroller will increment the count. And if any person leaves the room then second receiver will cut and then first receiver will cut. Then Microcontroller will decrement the count.

Question: Concerning pets in the room, are they likely to trigger the system? What are the ways of avoiding false triggering?

Answer: Yes, your Pets can trigger the sensors. To avoid this situation, sensors should be placed at the higher level from ground. You can keep them at 4 feet from ground. But 1 more thing, if your pets jump 4 feet from ground then this will trigger the sensor:-):D1

Question: Can we use RFID reader & RFID cards in this project along with the Infrared sensors ?
Is it possible that in entry operation, the RFID will count and in the exit operation, the infrared will count?

Answer: Yes, this is possible. We can implement this project using RFID reader.
Whenever person enters the room, he/she will show the RFID card to RFID sensor and the counter will count as one but the infrared entry will not be activated. But when the person is leaving the room, the infrared exit operation will be activated and the counter will decrement by one and the lights will turn off if nobody is in the room.
The RFID sensor will be placed outside the room for the Entry and the infrared sensors will be placed at side of the door for the exit operation. Meaning, if the person enters the room and he/she shows the rfid card to rfid sensor, the rfid will activate but it disregards the infrared entry operation. But leaving the room, the infrared will do the task and the counter will decrement.

Question: If this project is used during daytime then lights will always turn on & off and this will lead to wastage of electricity. How to overcome this situation? Or can’t this project be used during day time?

Answer: In some specific seminar hall, conference rooms and study rooms, sunlight can not reach in daytime as well. This is to give some presentations on projector or big screens. In these cases lights are turned on even in daytime.
In other cases, where sunlight is enough and lights are not required in day time, we can turn off the project so it will not function. And then we can turn on the project in evening time.

Question: I tried to replicate the circuit of the transmitter and receiver on a bread board using the given components. The output of both transmitters was adjusted to 38 KHz. But the IR receiver is not giving active low output. What can be the problem?

Answer: Use a potentiometer to adjust the frequency of transmitter circuit. Also check the connections of TSOP1738 IR receiver circuit, sometimes problem could be in receiver.

Question: In this project can we use any sensor other than TSOP1738? Any animal like dog may also enter the room & will get counted by the counter, this will lead to an error. Can u suggest any other sensors which will detect only human being or human body?

Answer: TSOP1738 IR sensor is the most suitable sensor for this project.

Question: I have prepared the circuit of 555 timer which is giving output of 38khz. Problem is that the Red LED connected to the IR receiver is always active (always turned on) and only blinks when I try to cut the infrared beam from the arrangement of IR transmitter and receiver which you sent me. What can be the problem?

Answer: I have reviewed circuit and have 2 suggestions. First one, Capacitor connected to Pin 5 of IC555 should be 103 pico Farad. And the third terminal of potentiometer RV is left open. It should be connected to second terminal of variable restistor RV. Then set the resistance between pin 7 and 6 to 11.4 kohm. If the circuit is still not working properly then try varying the potentiometer, reduce the resistance. LED should turn off when Transmitter is facing towards Receiver.

Question:Can we get 120 volt as output of the relay because here in Canada we have lights works in 120 volt ? The transformer works at 240V but here in Canada we have 120V so do we change the transformer to 120v if yes what transformer we need? Secondly is it possible if we remove the transformer and directly supply 9volts to the circuit? If yes then at what point we can connect the DC supply coz then we gave to skip the dc converter circuit?

Answer: Relay does not give any voltage output. Relay acts as a switch. About transformer: you can use 9volt/500mili ampere transformer. And if you want to operate this project on regulated DC supply then you can remove transformer and you can directly give 9 volts supply. You have to remove transformer wires and at the same point you can give 9 volt DC supply.

Question:Can this model hypothetically sense whether a person is going in or out of a room? Can the IR sensors detect obstructions only, not the direction?

Answer: Yes, IR sensors detect the direction. This project has 2 sensors. So when person goes in 1st sensor is cut and then 2nd sensor is cut. Thus microcontroller increments the count. I have added image of how to install sensor on door on this webpage: (see at the end/bottom of page)

Question: Doubt concerning the placement of IR sensor in the door frame. In the website you have given a chart showing the placement of the circuit, in that picture the transmitter1 and receiver2 is on one side of the frame and vice versa. Why is it so? Do you have any specific reason? Can we place TX1 & TX2 on the same side?

Answer: You can place Tx1 & TX2 on same side but it will reduce the efficiency of the receiver as both IR receivers will receive the rays from both transmitters, so if the distance between 2 receivers on one side of door is less then chances are there that it will not identify that person is entering the room.

Do you have question or any feedback about this project?

Please email us your questions or write comments below.

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  • Asif Anwar says:

    It’s a simple but a very good project in practical sense.
    I have just constructed this system for 3 rooms.

    I have got the idea from this site and now feeling great !! :)

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi Asif Anwar, thats great! and thanks for sharing your experience with us and everyone.

    • guhan says:

      Sir i am guhan doing my BE. we are doing miniproject in our college. I dont like to buy some projects in some other project center. So i think some concept and when i take some notes related to my project through internet i have found yours…..the same concept “automatic on\off lights when there are person respectively”…. i am fan of yours..:-)

  • vinothini says:

    I too like this project. It’s a very great idea!!! But i have a question. During night time when we go to sleep will the lights be ON or we should TURN OFF it?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi vinothini, as per the current functionality of the project, lights will be turned on when there is one or more than one person in room. So if you don’t need lights when you are going to sleep, you should turn off the project.

      • muhd says:

        what if i modified this project by adding LDR. so the light will be turn on when the LDR detect darkness. And is the microcontroller need to be programmed ?

        • Microtronics Technologies says:

          Hi muhd, we have provided in the advanced version of this project. LDR will detect the sunlight. So the relay(light) will be turned on when there is darkness. And the microcontroller is pre-programmed.

  • supraja says:

    when did the research on this project was started and by whom?

  • shikha says:

    How can i implement the same project using breadboard?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi shikha, yes you can implement this circuit on breadboard. However it will be a really complicated task since it involves lots of wiring connections.

  • Mohamad Nazreen says:

    Hi im from malaysia, if i order this project, when can i get it?

  • Omkar says:

    can u give the overall list of components used in this project

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi Omkar, you will get the list of components after purchasing the project. You will get a CD containing all the documents and details.

  • manash says:

    can you please provide me the circuit diagram? please do mention the elements name.

  • harit says:

    can anyone tell whether we can use a human sensing system to detect a person inside the room ???

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi harit, PIR sensor can be used to detect human being / person inside the room. But this project does not have PIR sensor. We have used 2 infrared sensors and these are installed on door.

  • ROHIT RANJAN says:

    sir i want this project give me your no.

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi ROHIT RANJAN, out contact numbers are given in “Contact US” page. Also we have sent the same contact number to you through email.

      • Devang b patel says:

        Sir is any sensor to detect light brightness and then on light at day timeor keep it off At day time with blood sensor and temperature sensor
        Can u give any comment about this .

        • Microtronics Technologies says:

          Hi Devang b patel, we have already included Light sensor to detect daytime.
          We can even add Temperature sensor as per your requirement. But please send details of your customized requirement to our email id.
          However it is not possible to add blood sensor in this project.

  • Aleee says:

    Does it works for same entry ,exit door..????

  • mbavu says:

    am getting started with some project in the same line with this only that mine has to consider all the appliances in the room e.g. TV, radio set, fun, flat iron, computers, chargers. this will give some time lag/allowance between the occupant living the room and switching off. so my question is how viable this is?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi mbavu, yes this is feasible. We have provided a relay with this project. It can be used to turn a single device or many devices at a time. Also we can provide a time lag between switching off devices.

  • Name says:

    Hi Guys very useful content.
    Can u guys make a tutorial to detect room entry alert system using alarm with clear explanation ???

  • amana ali says:

    i like your project but i can’t get the full document so if you can please attach the full document by my mail adress

  • Naveen says:

    How to differentiate two transmitter from their respective receivers?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi Naveen, Two transmitters should have sufficient distance between each other so that they will not interfere with each other. We have to take precaution that the IR rays of first transmitter should fall only on first IR receiver and not on second receiver.

  • kashish says:

    Hi guys….i liked this project …i want to make a project for minors next week so can anyone provide me with the datasheet of this project please….Thank you.

  • PAVITHIRAN says:


  • naomi debrtsion says:

    HI GUYS…..i am impressed by ur work i am writing this because i need ur help i am working with the same project on my final year project,,i am computer engineering student in Eritrea(east Africa).can you help me with some questions???thank you for this opportunity

  • khushboo thakare says:

    how can we implement this project by sending the data to a remote location using mobile or internet?
    plzzzz reply as soon as possible…..

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi khushboo thakare, we can implement computer interfacing or GSM modem interfacing with this project. GSM modem can be used to send SMS to a mobile placed at remote location. And PC interfacing can be used to send data to computer then a computer application can be developed to send this data to internet.

  • chinnu says:

    when a cat or any other animals comes across the ir sensor , will light remain on or off?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi chinnu, sensors does not differenciate between a human being and an animal. So if any animal crosses the sensor then the visitor counter will be incremented or decremented (depending on the direction) and then lights will be turned on if count is greater than zero.

  • Roshan says:

    Sir, is there any kind of programming also involved with the micro-controller 89s51 in this project? If yes then are programming for counters and for LCD Displaying separately?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi Roshan, yes 89s51 microcontroller programming is involved in this project. Although there are different functions for LCD and person counter modules, but they are combined in a single program.

  • shanthini says:

    hi i m shanthini.i m doin BE(EEE).i want some innovative,new idea for my miniproject. please send some project.i have another doubt,if i use PIR what will be the change..

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi shanthini, PIR Sensor has large range as compared to normal IR sensors. So it can detect the person but it gets difficult to understand if the person is entering in the room or leaving the room.

  • kashaf says:

    why this project can’t work for 2 or more persons whlie entering in room at same time?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi kashaf , microcontroller just reads the output signal from IR receiver sensor. And this sensor does not recognize the number of person. It just responds to the IR rays falling on it. So if two or more person enters in room without any gap between them then it will treat as a single pulse. And this pulse will be given to microcontroller for further processing.

  • Ahmed says:

    Can you please explain the use of 555 Timer ICs in the project?

  • Jridi hamza says:

    plz what’s the IR transmitter reference that you used in this project??
    thank you :)

  • anushka says:

    hi guys … i’m a btech student and i’m planning to do this project for my mini project. but our professors insist that we submit the project without using any microcontrollers. is it possible to implement the same idea without the use of any programmable ICs ??? please help,, change of project is not allowed

  • bhakti2 says:

    can i interface dc motor on this object counter becaus when no. of entering person leave the room than door automaticaly closed

  • Elaine Lombog says:

    hi, would it possible if I add temperature control in this project?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi Elaine Lombog, yes we can add temperature control. However for this we need to modify the circuit. I would recommend to add a comparator instead of a Analog to digital convertor.

  • papun says:

    sir , can we connect at a time 1fan+2light+1tv with this project ?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi papun, yes we can connect these devices to a single relay. But then all these devices will be turned on or off at the same time. If you want con control them individually then we need to modify the circuit to add 2 more relays.

  • Mukta says:

    I have a question,have you calculated how much energy is saved by implementing this project. Can you provide a approx. quantified value in terms of % or Watts,how much energy is saved?

  • Felix says:

    since the counter will either increment or decrement when there is obstruction on the sensors, how can it differenciate between the person that is entering or leaving the room?

    • Microtronics Technologies says:

      Hi Felix, please refer to the image shown under “How to place these sensors on door” section.
      When person enters room then sensor sequence will be as below:
      Initially first sensor will be activated and later second sensor will be activated.
      And in case of person leaving the room, sensor sequence will be as below:
      Initially second sensor will be activated and later first sensor will be activated.

  • palak says:

    I have a actually the IR transistors work over here?

  • kinnu says:

    what is the range of these IR sensors?

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